Gluten-Free: Why Symptoms Persist and What to Do

At a time when dietary changes have become central to managing chronic disease and improving wellbeing, a gluten-free lifestyle has become a beacon of hope for many. Whether due to celiac disease, gluten sensitivity or other health concerns, eliminating gluten is often seen as a direct route to alleviating distressing symptoms.

However, the path to symptom relief is not always straightforward. Even when gluten is strictly avoided, some people continue to experience symptoms. This confusing scenario can be daunting, but understanding the complexities involved can shed light on why this happens. Here are four reasons why symptoms may persist despite following a gluten-free diet.

"Gluten-Free" labeled with an assortment of gluten-free grains and flours, emphasizing alternative dietary options

Time is a Crucial Factor

The body’s response to gluten is mediated by the immune system, which produces various antibodies, including IgG/IgA antibodies, in response to gluten ingestion. IgG antibodies have a half-life of about 21 days, which means that it takes about that long for their levels to be halved. It may take 6-7 half-lives – around 3-4 months – to significantly reduce antibody levels and therefore the immune response. Patience is therefore essential. Immediate relief of symptoms following a dietary change may not be realistic as the body needs time to adapt and clear these antibodies.

Hidden Sources of Gluten

Gluten is a sneaky protein found in wheat, barley, rye, spelt and kamut, and avoiding it means more than just avoiding these grains in their whole form. Gluten lurks in many processed foods, sauces, dressings and even non-food items such as medicines and lip balms. Hidden gluten can be accidentally ingested and cause symptoms despite conscientious efforts to avoid it. Carefully reading labels, asking about ingredients in restaurants and being aware of the risk of cross-contamination are essential strategies for maintaining a truly gluten-free lifestyle.

Cross-Reactive Foods

A fascinating aspect of gluten sensitivity is the concept of cross-reactivity. Certain foods, although gluten-free, contain proteins that the immune system mistakenly recognises as gluten. Consumption of these foods can trigger an immune response similar to that triggered by gluten, leading to persistent symptoms. Identifying and eliminating these cross-reactive foods may be necessary for some people to achieve symptom relief.

Gluten cross-reactive foods:

  • Dairy
  • Rice
  • Oats
  • Corn
  • Millet
  • Yeast
  • Sesame
  • Instant coffee (due to potential gluten contamination)

Gluten Isn’t the Sole Culprit

Finally, it’s important to recognise that gluten may not be the only problem. For many people, gluten sensitivity co-exists with other food sensitivities, autoimmune disorders or gut health problems. Simply removing gluten from the diet may not address the full range of underlying causes contributing to symptoms. A comprehensive approach, including further dietary changes, addressing gut health and managing stress, may be required for holistic healing and symptom resolution.


The road to wellbeing for people adopting a gluten-free lifestyle is multifaceted and requires a comprehensive understanding of the underlying issues that may be preventing symptom relief. While eliminating gluten is a critical step for those with celiac disease, gluten sensitivity or other health concerns, it’s important to recognise that the journey doesn’t stop there. The persistence of symptoms despite a gluten-free diet can often be attributed to factors such as the time it takes for the immune system to adapt, hidden sources of gluten, cross-reactivity with other foods, and the presence of other sensitivities or health conditions.

Patience, vigilance and a holistic approach to health are essential. Identifying and addressing hidden sources of gluten, understanding cross-reactive foods, and considering broader dietary and lifestyle changes are key to achieving and maintaining symptom relief. By adopting these strategies, individuals can more effectively navigate the complexities of a gluten-free lifestyle and pave the way for improved health and well-being.


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  2. Sapone, Anna, et al. “Spectrum of Gluten-Related Disorders: Consensus on New Nomenclature and Classification.” BMC Medicine, vol. 10, no. 1, 2012.
  3. Vojdani, Aristo. “Cross-Reactivity between Gliadin and Different Food and Tissue Antigens.” Food and Nutritional Sciences, vol. 4, no. 01, 2013, pp. 20-32.
  4. Leonard, Maureen M., and Alessio Fasano. “The Gluten-Free Diet: Fad or Necessity?” Diabetes Spectrum, vol. 30, no. 2, 2017, pp. 118-123.
  5. Catassi, Carlo, et al. “Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders.” Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 10, 2013, pp. 3839-3853.

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